Prof. Francesco De Martini,
Via Circo Massimo 9, Roma 00153;
Tel. +39-065780358, Fax: +39-064454778
e-mail: francesco.demartini[at]

Born in Novara, Italy on 30 May 1934. Laurea in Electrical Engeneering (Politecnico di Milano) in 1959.


- 1979 - 2008 Full professor of  "Quantum Optics" and of "Quantum Information", University "La Sapienza", Roma.

- 1979 Libera Docenza in "Struttura della Materia"

- 1976 – 1979 Full professor of "Structure of Matter", University of Naples

- 1970 – 1976 Assistant professor of "Structure of Matter", University of Rome "La Sapienza"   

- 1967 - 1970 Charge’ de Recherches, Conseil National de La Recherche Scientifique, Universite’ de Paris - Sud (with Professors J.  Ducuing and  A. Kastler, Nobel Laureate)

- 1964 - 1967 D.S.R. Staff Member, Massachusetts Institute of Technology  (with Professor C. H. Townes, Nobel Laureate).

Organizational activities

- Co-editor of 6 volumes of conference proceedings on Nonlinear optics, " Polaritons", Quantum Optics and Quantum Information

- Member of the program committee of several international conferences (occasionally conference chairman)

- Chairman of the Quantum Optics Laboratory at Universita’ di Roma "La Sapienza" since 1970


Luigi Tartufari Prize for Physics by the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Italy, 2004

Chairman of the Quantum Optics Laboratory at Università di Roma "La Sapienza" since 1970. Author of 6 books and of nearly 250 papers related to various modern aspects of nonlinear-optics of gases and solids, of solid-state nonlinear Spectroscopy of F-centers in alkali-halides and of surface and bulk polaritons. In the latter fields, in the years 1965-1975  De Martini invented and realized the first experimental application to gases (H2) and solids (III-V Semiconductors GaP, GaAS and ZnO) of the Coherent Antistokes Raman Spectroscopy (C.A.R.S.) method now widely used in basic molecular Spectroscopy. This research was granted by the "Premio Sicilia per la Fisica" in 1972.

In 1980 De Martini turned his attention to the free-electron lasers (FEL) and in that field he invented and patented the "FEL relativistic coherent X-ray up-converter" (Optical Klystron), realized experimentally a few years later by a French group.

His pioneering activity in the domain on "Cavity QED", in the period 1980-1995, was focused on the investigation of the quantum statistical properties of the electromagnetic radiation generated in the active microscopic optical cavity ("micro-cavity"). A very important micro-cavity device, today widely used in semiconductor technology, the "thresholdless optical micro-laser" was first conceived and demonstrated experimentally in the years by Francesco De Martini and co-workers correspondingly in 1987 and in 1988. Since this discovery, the "microcavity" and the "microlaser" are generally considered as fundamental, paradigmatic concepts in the field of Quantum Optics. Furthermore, on the technological side, the microlaser is today an essential component in any active micro - miniaturized electro-optical device.

Since 1995 the activity of Professor De Martini was mostly centered on presently active on the field of non-linear parametric generation and manipulation of two-particle quantum "entangled-states". These ones were adopted in the Quantum Optics Laboratory in Roma for fundamental tests of the basic nonlocality of quantum reality, including E.P.R. paradox and Bell inequalities and Quantum State Teleportation. In particular, in 1997 the Quantum Optics group lead by De Martini realized experimentally the first "Quantum State Teleportation" protocol and the Hardy's ladder proof of non-locality", two important, long sought realizations of fundamental Physics with applications in the domain of "Quantum Information" and "Quantum Computation". The first outstanding experimental demonstration of the "Quantum State Teleportation" process was granted in 2004 by the Tartufari Prize of the Accademia dei Lincei.

The parametrically generated "entangled states" and "hyper-entangled states" were recently applied by Prof. De Martini to an extended theoretically and experimentally investigation on the process of "Quantum cloning". In that domain De Martini achieved in the year 2002 the first realization of the Universal Optimal NOT-Gate". Indeed, the vast majority of the "quantum cloning machines", interconnected with the U-NOT gate and Teleportation realized worldwide in the last ten years were produced by the experimental group led by De Martini. Side realizations of that extended endeavor were the realization of the first "Entanglement Witness" process, of the process of "Quantum Tomography", and, more recently, an extended pioneering work on the "One-way quantum computation" by "Cluster states".

In the last fifteen years the scientific activity of De Martini was focused on the basic "macro-realistic" issue of fundamental quantum mechanics. In this connection De Martini set forth in 1998 the theoretical proposal of the first "decoherence-free Schrödinger Cat" system, a celebrated, intriguing  paradigm of modern Physics. This important realization was finally achieved by the group led by De Martini in the year 2008, and the first experimental demonstration of a decoherence-free "Schrödinger Cat " composed by 105 particles was published in the same year in Physical Review Letters. The extended research endeavour including the latter achievements as well as the bulk of the previous "quantum cloning" activity is now outlined in a 2012 comprehensive paper published in "Reviews of Modern Physics" (F.De Martini, F.Sciarrino: "Multiparticle Quantum Superpositions and the Quantum-to-Classical transition").

Francesco De Martini is presently involved, in collaboration with Professor Enrico Santamato of the University of Naples, in an ambitious theoretical program aimed at a reformulation of several fundamental issues of quantum mechanics by a geometrodynamical approach based on the "conformal" differential geometry set forth by Hermann Weyl in the last century. Very recently, by this unconventional approach a novel reformulation of Dirac's equation and an enligthening pers- pective on the origin of "Quantum Nonlocality" were successfully achieved and published.

In the year 2007 Prof. De Martini was appointed as member of the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Italy.

The detailed activity of Prof. De Martini including published books and papers is expressed by the more than 270 scientific Publications. The following "scientific highligths" chapter gives a more detailed account of the text above.


(The numbers within [ ] brackets correspond to papers appearing in the above LIST of publications)

1- Molecular and Solid state Spectroscopy: First measurement of the vibrational relaxation time T1 in a molecular gas (Hydrogen, 1966); First CARS experiments ever in gas (H2) and in F-centers [9, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 32, 35, 40].

2- First theoretical analysis of a nonlinear optical self-action: self-steepening (with C.H.Townes, 1967) [13, 14].

3- Coherent Antistokes Resonant Spectroscopy (C.A.R.S.) -Nonlinear Spectroscopy:  first experimental application of the C.A.R.S. (Coherent Antistokes Resonant Spectroscopy) to NL Spectroscopy of semiconductors: bulk polaritons in GaP (1968) [17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23], and to surface-phonon, surface-plasmons and surface-exciton polaritons (1976 -) [36, 37, 38 39, 43, 45, 46, 64, 67].

4- Invention (Patent) of the "free-electron Optical Klystron" for UV- and X-ray generation (1982-) [44, 51, 53, 56, 61, 62, 65, 81]

5- Invention and first experimental realization of the "self-injected laser": (in Nd-Yag, picosecond, non-  mode locked, 1984) [47, 49, 50, 66], in a Dye-laser [48, 55 ], in a CO2 laser (1987) [71].

6- Theory and first experimental realization of the "Stochastic Interferometer" (1992) [79, 80, 83, 85, 87, 99, 100, 102, 103]

7- CAVITY QED : Invention and first realization of the Active Optical Microscopic-Cavity ("Microcavity"):

a) First measurement of the anomalous spontaneous emission time in an optical microcavity (1987) [69, 70, 72, 73, 75], First Microcavity Raman effect [107, 122]

b) "thresholdless microlaser", invention and first experimental realization of the microlaser (1988) [76, 78, 86, 91, 101]

c) Complete theory of the "active microcavity" (with R. Loudon, 1991) [90, 95, 96, 97,105, 106]

d) Transverse inter-atom interactions in the microcavity: relativistic-causality (1994) [86, 87, 88, 113, 115, 117, 118, 119] and Bose-Einstein spatial correlations: first realization of "spatial quantum superradiance" (1999) [149, 164]

e) First microcavity generation of sub-poissonian light (1996) [121,125, 126, 129, 134, 141, 180]

8 - LASER PHYSICS: a) High gain amplification of femtosecond pulses [92, 94, 130, 140, 141, 143].


a) First experimental realization of the nonlinear quantum interferometry (frequency-hopping) [171, 128]

b First experimental realization of the Quantum Process Tomography [172, 173, 186, 189]

10- QUANTUM INFORMATION: Generation and manipulation of "entangled photon states":

a) First experimental test of the "Ladder Proof of Quantum Nonlocality" (with L.Hardy, 1997) [123, 124, 138]

b) First experimental realization of "Quantum State Teleportation" (QST) (1997) [139, 188]

c) First experimental realization of the "0- 1-photon qubit QST" and first demonstration of the "ACTIVE Quantum State Teleportation" [165,166, 168]

d) First experimental demonstration of the Universal Optimal Quantum Cloning Machine (UOQCM) [155, 216, 228, 238

e) First generation of optical Schroedinger-Cat states by quantum injected parametric process (1999) Entanglement and Nonlocality of a Micro-Macroscopic a Macro-Macroscopic Systems [ 144, 145, 149, 150, 225, 230, 231, 234, 238, 253, 271].

f) First experimental demonstration of the Quantum Universal Optimal NOT-Gate (U-NOTGate) [178, 187]

g) First experimental contextual realization of the Universal Optical Quantum Cloning Machine (UOQCM) and of U-NOTGate [182,187,190,191].

h) First experimental demonstration of an "Entanglement witness" [190].

i) First experimental demonstration of Nonlocality enhancement by Hyper-entanglement [221, 211, 248]

j) First experimental demonstration of a "Minimum Disturbance Measurement" [217,222]

k) First experimental realization of the Universal Source of Entanglement with study of Werner states [180, 196, 203, 219]

l) First experimental purification of single qubits [201]

m) First experimental quantum spin-flipping by the Faraday Mirror [194]

n) First experimental Teleportation scheme implementing the UOQM and U-NOT gate [202]

o) First experimental test of the no-signalling theorem [227]

p) First experimental One-way Quantum computation by Cluster states [236]

q) Proposal for Bell inequality multiparticle studies and genuine time-energy entanglement [230, 240]

11- THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION ON THE CONFORMAL WEYL'S FIELD THEORY applied to the foundations of Quantum Mechanics and of Quantum Nonlocality [267, 268, 270]